高考英语语法专题讲练十:情景交际

发布于:2021-10-19 03:55:01

 情景交际   【考点分析】   1.日常交际应答语   ①应答对方的感谢;   ②应答对方的道歉;   ③应答对方的劝告和建议;   ④应答对方的请求;   ⑤应答对方的要求;   ⑥应答对方的邀请;   ⑦应答对方的祝愿、祝贺;   ⑧应答对方的鼓励和赞扬;   ⑨应答对方的帮助。   2.情感态度的表达   ①表示惊奇;   ②表示同情;   ③表示安慰;   ④表示鼓励;   ⑤表示同意;   ⑥表示不同意;   ⑦表示不在乎。   3.日常交际问答   ①问候;   ②问时间、日期;   ③打电话;   ④购物;   ⑤问路。   4.几个常考的交际用语   ①It all depends!(视情况而定);   ②what if(倘若......会怎么样);   ③What for?(做什么用,为什么);   ④So what ?(那又怎么样);   ⑤Got it!(明白了);   ⑥Take your time.(别着急);   ⑦Take it easy.(放松点);   ⑧It’s up to…(由……决定)。   【知识点归纳】

  I.日常交际应答语   1.感谢与应答   感谢   Thank you very much.   Thanks a lot.   Many thanks.   应答   That's all right.   Thanks for helping me.   You're welcome.   That's OK.   Not at all.   It’s my pleausre.   Don’t mention it.   It’s nothing.   Think nothing of it.   Forget it.   2.道歉与应答   道歉   I'm sorry.   I'm sorry to trouble you.   I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.   应答   It doesn't matter.   It's not important.   That's/It’s nothing.   Not at all.   Neve rmind.   That’s all right.   Forget it.   That’s OK.   No problem.   Not to worry.   3.劝告、建议与应答   劝告和建议   I think you ought to…我想你应该……

  If I were you, I’d…如果我是你,我会……   It might be a good idea if you…如果你……这倒是个好主意。   Have you ever thought of…? 你是否想过要……?   I recommend that……我建议……   I strongly advise you to……我极力主张你……   You really ought to……你的确应该……   Personally, I think you’d better……依我看,你最好……   Why not do……? 为什么不……?   Why don’t you do……? 你为什么不……?   I suggest that……我建议……   What about doing……? ……怎么样?   How about doing……? ……怎么样?   Shall we……? 我们去……好吗?   Let’s……, shall we? 让我们去……好吗?   You need (to)……你需要……   应答   肯定的:   Good idea.   That’s great.   Sounds great.   It sounds great.   That’s fine.   Why not?   否定的:   I’d love to,but…   I’m afraid…   It’s an idea,but…   4.请求与应答   请求   May I...?   Can I?   Could I...?   Do you mind if I…   应答   肯定的:   With pleasure.

  Certainly(Of course)   Sure,go ahead.   Yes,help yourself.   Of Course not,go ahead(回答Do you mind if I…的请求)   否定的:   I’m afraid not.   Better not.   I’d rather you didn’t. 5.应答对方的要求   肯定的:   All right.   I will.   否定的:   No way.   Forget it.   —Do remember to call me up when you arrive. —I will.   —I think you should phone Jenny and say sorry to her. — No way.It was her fault.   6.邀请与应答   邀请   Would you like to … ?   Why don’t we…?   应答   肯定的:   That would be fine.   Tha’s very kind of you.   All right.   Yes,I’d love to.   否定的:   I’d love to,but…   Sorry,I can’t.   I’m afraid I can’t.   7.祝愿、祝贺与应答   祝愿、祝贺   Good luck!   Best wishes to you.

  Have a nice/good time/journey.   Congratulations!   Happy New Year!   Merry Christmas!   Happy birthday to you.   应答   Thank you!   The same to you.   You,too.   —Happy New Year!(Merry Christmas!)   —The same to you.(You,too.)   8.鼓励、赞扬与应答   鼓励、赞扬   Very good.   Well done.   Wonderful.   Excellent.   Come on.   Keep trying.   You can do it.   应答   Thank you.   OK.   I’ll try it again.   9.提供帮助与应答   主动提供帮助时:   Can I help you?   What can I do for you   Would you like me to help you?   Do you want me to…   Let me…   需要别人帮助时:   Yes,please   Thank you for your help\Thanks.   不需要别人帮助时:   No,thank you\thank you all the same.

  That’s very kind of you, but…   II.情感态度的表达   1.表示惊奇   Really?   How come?(何以会……?为什么)   What a surprise!   Oh,dear!   Good heavens!   2.表示同情   I’m sorry to hear that.   Don’t worry.   What a pity!   That’s really unlucky.   Bad luck.   Just my luck.   3.表示安慰   Don’t worry.   Don’t be afraid.   Take your time.   Take it easy.   Make yourself at home.   It’s quite all right.   It’ll be OK.   4.表示鼓励   Come on.   Cheer up.   You can do it.   You will make it.   5.表示同意   I quite agree.   I couldn’t agree more.   Exactly.   Certainly.   Absolutely.   Of course.   All right.

  That’s a good idea.   No problem.   I think so.   6.表示不同意   Not really.   Not Exactly.   I don’t quite agree.   I don’t think so.   I’m afraid not.   It’s hard to say.   Well,that’s depend.   No way.   Of course not.   7.表示不在乎   So what?   Who cares? III.日常交际问答   1.问候   ①A:Good morning/afternoon/evening.   Hello/Hi.   How do you do?   Nice to meet you.   B:答语与问候语相同。   ②A:How are you?   B:Fine, thank you.And you?   A:Very well,thank you.   2.问时间、日期   A:What day is it? B:It's Monday.   A:What's the date? B:It's Jan. 10th.   A:What's the time,please? B:It's five o'clock/half past five... It's time to ...   3.打电话   This is…(speaking). 我是……(不说I am…)   It is …here. 我是……   May I speak to …, please? 请找……接电话好吗?   Can I speak to …, please? 请找……接电话好吗?

  Could I speak to …, please? 请找……接电话好吗?   I’d like to speak to…, please. 请找……接电话好吗?   Who’s that (speaking / calling)? 你是谁?(不说Who are you?)   Is that …(speaking)? 你是……吗?   Is …there? ……在吗?   Is…in? ……在吗?   Hold on, please. 请稍等。   Hold the line, please.请稍等。   Can I take a message? 你可以留个口信吗?(对方要找的人不在 时)   Can you give/ leave a message?你可以留个口信吗?(对方要找的 人不在时)   Can/Could I ask who is calling?请问您是哪位?   May I have your telephone number? 您的电话号码是多少?   4.购物   What can I do for you?您要买点什么?   Can I help you? 您要买点什么?   What’s the price of …?……的价钱是多少?   How much is…? ……多少钱?   It’s well worth the money.很合算。   Have you got anything a little cheaper? 有没有比这便宜点 的?   How much does it come to? 总共多少钱?   How much is it altogether? 总共多少钱?   Try it for size. 试试大小。   Will you show me…?请拿给我看……?   Have you got any…? 你们有……吗?   It’s a bit too large (small, plain. gaudy etc.) for me.   这对于我来说太大(太小,太素,太花哨等)了。   That’s fine. I’ll take it. 那好,我买了。   That’s too expensive, I’m afraid.恐怕那太贵了。   What colour do you want? 你要什么颜色?   What size do you want? 你要什么尺寸的?   Do you have any other kind? 你们有别的种类吗?   5.问路

  Excuse me.Where’s …?劳驾,……在什么地方?   Excuse me. Can you tell me the way to…? 劳驾,你能告诉我 去……的路吗?   How can I get to…?我怎样去……?   Go down this street.顺着这条街走。   Turn right at the first crossing.在第一个十字路口向右拐。   Turn left at the second crossing.在第二个十字路口向左拐。   It’s about…metres from here.离这里大约有……米。   It’s only a ten-minute walk from here.走十分钟就到了。   Go straight ahead till you see…一直往前走直到你看见……   IV.建议和提醒   交际用语要注意中西方的差异,这点非常重要,往往考生失分就在 于忽视了中西方文化上的差异。交际用语的不仅在单选里考查,听力里 也有所涉及。所以,*时做听力时也可以积累交际上的回答,注意体味 情景的含义。交际用语的复*不要刻意投入太多的时间,把*时该掌握 的掌握好就可以了!   根据大纲的要求,我们考生所要熟悉的功能意念部分包括:问候, 介绍,告别,感谢和应答,祝愿、祝贺和应答,邀请和应答,提供(帮 助等)和应答,约会,意原和希望,请求、允许和应答;同意和不同意, 喜好和厌恶,决断和坚持,判断和意见,职责,能力,偏爱,责备和抱 怨,肯定和不肯定,禁止和警告,可能和不可能,预见、猜测和相信, 请求,劝告和建议,许诺,提醒,表示焦虑,表示惊奇,表示喜悦等三 十余项。   以及所要熟悉的情景场所部分的对话:包括谈论天气,购物,问路 和应答,问时间、日期和应答,就餐,打电话,传递信息,看病,求 救,语言困难,标志和说明等十余项。   同时解题时要做到“四忌”   一忌上词下用   上词下用指的是答句部分延用了题干句子的重点词、信息词,按表 层意思似乎合情合理,但往往为错误的“虚像”,需经进一步分析后才 能确定正确选项。典型的例子如用“I don’t”应答“Don’t forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow”,用“Don’t be sorry”回答“I’m sorry I broke your mirror”,以及用“No thanks”回答“Thank you ever so much for the book you sent me.”避免“上词下用”的误区,一是确认题目涉及的交际功能项目, 二是确认句子上下文语境,三是确认正确的话语方式。请看下例:

  —I wonder if I could use your telephone.   —________.   A.I wonder how B.I don’t wonder C.Sorry,it’s out of order D.No wonder,here it is   解析:尽管该题中反复出现“wonder”一词,但通过仔细审题可确 定其考查的功能项目为征求对方意见,问句相当于“Could I use your telephone?”综合语境和话题的分析,正确的答话方式一般为“Of course you can”(肯定)或“Sorry,you can’t”(否定),也只有C项 符合题意,A、B、D项均属典型的“上词下用”现象,而且D项中的“No wonder”意思为“难怪 ”,更是和题干内容相差甚远。?   二忌中文思维   与上词下用比较,这一误区更具迷惑力,因为无论按题目内容或是 按思维方式来考虑,都非常符合中国学生的*惯。显然,掌握英汉两种 语言和文化之间的相同和相异之处,对于准确解题至关重要。考生解题 失误之一是按汉语的表达方式和结构去套英语,去选答案,这属于语言 知识的“负迁移”。请看下例:   —Do you think it’s going to rain over the weekend?   —________.   A.I don’t believe B.I don’t believe it C.I believe not so D.I believe not   解析:以Do you think…?这样的句子来提问,用D项来回答表示否 定,显然不符合中文的表达*惯,这也正是许多考生选了A、B、C项的 原因。另一个更常见的失误是套用中国文化模式。违背英语国家的思维 方式和文化*俗,这属于文化方面的“负迁移”。   三忌直接回绝   这主要是指在对方要求得到帮助,提出请求或邀请时,回答过于直 接,不够委婉,尽管从语义角度分析是没毛病的,但不符合英语国家的 交际*惯。“请求”方面的问 话有May I…?/Can I…?/I wonder if I could…/Do you mind if I…?等,“邀请”方面 的问话有Will you…?/Would you like to…?/I’d like to invite to…等。在作否 定回答 时,为了表示礼貌和委婉,通常要用一些委婉词,如but,I’m afraid,I’m sorry,thanks,please,had better等。请看下例:   —I didn’t know this was a one-way street,officer.   —________?   A.That’s all right. B.I don’t believe you. C.How dare you say that? D.Sorry,but that’s no excuse.?

  解析:许多考生有可能选B、C项,这是没有注意到西方人生活、工 作中交往的必要礼节,答话时过于生硬,没有顾及他人感情,而正确答 案D项正是在充分考虑到说话双方的身份,彼此之间的关系以及说话人 的立场和态度的基础上做出的选择。   四忌答非所问   应该说答非所问的错误比较容易察觉,如果问话与答话的内容风牛 马不相及的话,考生可以迅速排除。但有时双方会话内容有所关联,但 仔细推敲发现其实答语并不切题。最典型的例子是With pleasure和 It’s a pleasure。前者一般在事前回答 ,表示“非常愿意”。后者 一般在事后回答,表示“不用客气”。 请看下例:   —Sorry, I couldn't come to the party. I was sick that day.   —_________.   A.I don't know that B.That's all right C.Yes, we'll have another party D.No, the party wasn't held   解析:A 、C和D三项均明显地答非所问,与问句无关;只有D项能够 作出直接的答复。 【高考预测】   1.—This free gift doesn't look good.   —_____________, madam, but if you want good quality, you have to pay for it.   A. No problem B. No doubt C. No offence D. No way   2.—Was yesterday’s party a great success?   —______.Tom, who is a good mixer, didn’t show up.   A. Not surprisingly B. Not necessarily C. Not exactly D. Not really   3.——Can I get you a cup of coffee?   ——___________.   A.With pleasure. B.You can please. C.That’s very nice of you. D.Thank you for the coffee.   4.—I’m so anxious about my driving test tomorrow. Would you please give me some advice?   — ____.I’m sure you are good enough to pass it. Be confident of yourself.   A. Absolutely B. Take it easy C. You are right D. Not really

  5. —You shouldn’t have taken pictures before the carved stones.   —___________.   A. Pardon me B. Yes, I will C. Never mind D. Don’t mention it   6.—Please tell Bruce he has won the first prize in the maths contest.   —________! He never did so well before.   A. Congratulations B. Good luck C. That’s right D. What a good surprise   7.—Tom, I got a strange call this morning, saying I had won an expensive car, which puzzled me.   —___________   A. Congratulations. B. You are a lucky dog. C. Forget it. It’s too expensive. D. Perhaps it’s a trick   8.—Don’t you agree with what he said?   —Yes, !It can’t be .   A.approximately;better B.absolutely;better C.relatively;worse D.fortunately; worse   9.—I’d like to invite you to my new house this Sunday.   —________.   A. Oh, no. Let’s not B. I’m very sorry, but I have other plans   C. I’d rather stay at home D. Oh, no. That’ll be too much trouble   10.—Sorry, Peter. I’m afraid that I can’t go to the cross talk show by Guo Degang with you.   — ! Who knows when he will come here next time?   A.Take it easy B.What a shame C.It doesn’t matter D.Do as you like   11.—Do you mind my smoking here?   —__________!   A.No, thanks B.No. Good idea C.Yes, please D.Yes.Better not   12.—Tom, would you like to come to our dinner party?   —_ ____.

  A. Yes, I would B. Sure, it’s my pleasure C. No, I can’t come D.Yes, with pleasure   13. — My name is Jack Smith.________   —Hi! I’m Jackson.   A. How do you do? B. Nice to meet you again.   C. How about you? D. How are you?   14.—Her grandpa passed away yesterday.   —_____ _ .   A.How do you like it? B.He was a kind man. C.Sorry to hear that. D.What shall we do?   15.—Shall we go there next Sunday?   —________?   —To see the football match.   A.What with B.What by C.What for D.What on   16.—Is there anything I can do for you,sir?   —_____ .   A.Perhaps.Go ahead B.No.Take your time   C.Yes.You're welcome D.Not now.Thanks anyway   17.—Sorry,I can't go camping with you. I have to prepare well enough for the entrance-exam.   —________!We can camp together next time.   A.Don't say so B.Congratulations C.Good luck D.No problem   18.— I’m going to travel to Sydney. Would you please tell me about your experiences there?   —________.Let’s discuss it over lunch.   A.Go ahead B.It just depends C.That’s wonderful D.By all means   19.—Shall I begin the lecture?   —I’m afraid we have to wait for a while. John is coming with a microphone.   — . I can do without the microphone.   A.I’m sorry B.Excuse me C.I beg your pardon D.Never mind   20.—Will he be back by ten tonight?   —No, _____ .   A.I think not so B.I’m not afraid C.I’m afraid not D.I don’t hope so

  21.—Tom, you are smoking again?   —______? It’s none of your business.   A.So what B.How come C.Why not D.What for   22.—You must obey every word of mine!   一______ I don’t?   A.How about B.What if C.So what D.what about   23.—Do remember to charge the battery 12 hours when you first use it.   — .   A.Made it B.Got it C.Understood it D.Remembered it   24.—What kind of dancing do you like?   —____________.If it’s rock music I’ll do disco,and if it’s romantic music I’ll do ballet.   A.pardon B.I can’t tell you C.It all depends D.Not exactly   25.— Do you think I should join the singing group, Mary?   — ___ __ .If I were in your shoes, I certainly would.   A.None of your business B.It depends C.Why not D.I don’t think so   26.— Is there anything wrong with my heart?   —Nothing serious.____________.   A.Take it easy. B. Cheer up C. No way D. What a pity   27.—Excuse me, could you please spare me a few minutes to explain this?   —Sorry, but I must go to a meeting now.   —_______________.   A.Thanks a lot B.What a pity C.I am sorry to hear that D.Thanks anyway   28. —Whose advice do you think I should follow?   —___________.   A. No problem B. Come on C. It’s up to you D. Well, that’s life   29. —Can you turn down the radio, please?   —________.   A. Oh, I know B. I'm sorry; I didn't realize it was that loud

  C. I'll keep it down next time. D. Please forgive me   30.—I’m not good at basketball, you know.   —_______ We’re playing for fun. Just try and you’ll see you can do it.   A. Well, it depends. B. Take your time. C. Come on! D. That’s OK.   31.—Shall I give you a hand with this as you are so busy now?   —Thank you. _______.   A. Of course you can B. If you like C. It’s up to you D. It couldn’t be better   32. —I can’t finish the paper until tomorrow, I’m afraid.   —That’s OK, there’s ______.   A. no problem B. no hurry C. no doubt D. no wonder   33.—Would you like another cup of tea?   —Thanks, .   A. but why not B. but I’d rather not C. and I’d like not D. and I’d rather not   34.— I’m afraid I can’t finish the book within this week.   —- _______.   A. Please go ahead B. That’s right C. Not at all D. Take your time   35.—I'm not good at singing,you know.   — It's just for fun.   A. No problem. B. Come on! C. What a pity! D. Cheer up.   36.—Michael was late for Mr. Smith’s oral class this morning.   —____ _? As far as I know, he never came late to class.   A. How come B. So what C. Why not D. What for   37.—Hi, Mr Yu, I want to buy a pen, but I happen to have no money with me. Could you lend me some?   —__________.   A. That’s fine B. Nothing serious C. Never mind D. No problem

  38.—Could you please tell me the answer to this question?   —_______________! It is not my style to help people cheat.   A. No problem B. No way C. Not at all D. No doubt   39. — Let’s go hiking this afternoon, Ok?   — __________   A. Not at all. B. Never mind. C. Why not? D. What of it?   40.—The toast bread is really delicious. Can I have a second piece?   —_________.   A. Behave yourself B. Help yourself C. Do it yourself D. Go ahead if you don’t mind   41.— Why don’t you take a taxi there? It’ll save you a lot of time.   — _________.   A.Thank you anyway! B.Yes, let’s. C.Good idea! D.That’s all right.   42. —The WHO expert points out that the H1N1 flu remains a constant threat to the health state of the whole world.   — . It’s really a serious problem facing us.   A.Sorry, but I cant B.No, I agree with you C.It sounds a good idea D.I can’t agree more   43.— I was late for work this morning.   — _________ You started early, didn’t you?   A. Why not? B. So what? C. How come? D. Never mind..   44.—Shall I begin the lecture?   -I afraid we have to wait for a while.John is coming with a microphone.   - .I can do without the microphone.   A.I'm sorry B.Excuse me C.I beg your pardon D.Never mind   45. — How are you getting on with your work ? — .   A.Thank you B.Fine , thank you C.Quite well ,thank you D.Why do you ask so ?   46.— Shall we go out for a drink tonight? —__ ____.   A.You are right B. It must be funny C.That sounds great D. Have a nice time.

  47.—Would you mind if I opened the window ?   —__ ____. In fact, I was going to suggest you __ __ it.   A. Yes; not did B.Not at all; do C. More or less; did D. Of course; do   48.—Thank you very much for helping me out of trouble, Bob.   —____________.   A. With pleasure B.Don’t mention it C. That’s right D. I hope so   49.—Can I take a week’s holiday, Sir?   —_________; we are too busy at present.   A. Don’t worry B. Don’t mention it C.Forget it D. No problem   50.—Don’t interrupt me while I’m explaining the problems to you.   —____ __.   A .All right,go ahead B. It’s my pleasure C. Of course, with pleasure D. Not at all   【参考答案】   1-5CDCBA 6-10DDBBB 11-15DDACC 16-20DCDDC 21-25ABBCC   26-30ADCBC 31-35DBBDB 36-40ADBCB 41-45CDCDC 4650CBBCA


相关推荐

最新更新

猜你喜欢